True or False. The research clearly indicates that social media has a significant influence on voters decisions about candidates and political issues.
__________ is the social institution through which power is acquired and exercised by various groups and individuals.
British kings and queens historically traced their authority from God. Weber called this __________.
__________ authority is held by elected or appointed government officials, but authority is invested in the office, not in the person who holds the office.
__________ is a political system in which power resides in one person or family and is passed from generation to generation through lines of inheritance.
__________ result when military officers seize power from the government, as has happened in recent decades in Argentina, Chile, and Haiti.
Direct participatory democracies
Citizen groups such as the American Conservative Union and Zero Population Growth are examples of __________.
special interest groups
political action committees
The __________ make(s) up the middle level of C. Wright Mill’s pyramidal model of the power elite.
executive branch of government
legislative branch, special interest groups, and local opinion leaders
unorganized masses of the citizenry
William Domhoff used the term __________ to refer to a small, fixed, privileged group of people with the power to constrain the political system and serve the interests of capitalism.
political action committee
special interest group
Political __________ is the process by which people learn political attitudes, values, and behavior.
Even in Presidential election years, voter turnout can be low. For example, in the 2012 presidential election, approximately __________ of eligible voters cast ballots.
The U.S. government employs about __________ people, excluding the U.S. Postal Service.
__________ is an economic system characterized by private ownership of the means of production, from which personal profits can be derived through market competition and without government intervention.
True or False. Illness is a social construction; definitions may change over time and between cultures.
At one time, health was considered to be simply the absence of disease. However, today the World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as the __________.
absence of sickness, viruses, and physical pains
state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being
state of equilibrium, with all the parts in balance
absence of infection
__________ is the term for an institutional system concerned with the scientific diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of illness.
__________ is the study of the causes and distribution of health, disease, and impairment throughout a population.
Sociology of medicine
Which of these is an example of a chronic disease?
A child born in the United States in 2013 has a life expectancy of __________.
Which of these is not a condition that has been attributed to long-term chronic heavy drinking or alcoholism?
What is the world’s leading infectious killer?
Throughout its history in the United States, payment for medical care has been __________.
through the federal government
on a fee-for-service basis
taken care of by health maintenance organizations
through a third-party provider
__________ is a nationwide public health insurance program that is a jointly funded federal–state–local program established to make health care more available to the poor.
Social health insurance
In 2012, __________ of all full-time workers in the United States lacked health insurance.
In Great Britain, the government sets health care policies, raises funds and controls the medical care budget, owns health care facilities, and directly employs physicians and other health care personnel. This is an example of a(n):
managed care system
fee-for-service health care system
universal health care system
socialized medicine system
True or False. In most areas of the world today, women are having fewer children than they have in the past.
True or False. Capitalism and innovative technologies are successfully solving the problems of overpopulation.
__________ is a subfield of sociology that examines population size, composition, and distribution.
The level of fertility in a society is based on biological and social factors, the primary biological factor being __________.
the roles available to women in a society
the general health and nutrition of women
the number of women of childbearing age
the prevalent viewpoint regarding what constitutes the “ideal” family size
According to the categories defined by the United Nations, the United States is a __________ country.
The __________ is considered an important reflection of a society’s level of preventive medical care, maternal nutrition, childbirth procedures, and neonatal care for infants.
crude death rate
fecundity minus actual fertility rate
infant mortality rate
__________ refers to the physical location of people throughout a geographic area; __________ is the term for the number of people within a given geographic area.
In the United States, after the Civil War, thousands of African Americans moved from the South to the North. This is an example of __________ .
One measure of population composition is the __________, which is the number of males for every hundred females in a given population.
rate of gender composition
English economist Thomas Malthus argued that the population would increase in a geometric (exponential) progression whereas the food supply would increase only by an arithmetic progression; thus, a __________ occurs.
limit to growth
During the demographic transition stage of __________, very little population growth occurs because both birth rates and death rates are low.
advanced industrialization and urbanization
__________ suggests that as the natural resources, land, and workforce in low-income countries with little or no industrialization have come under the influence of international markets, there has been a corresponding flow of migrants from those nations to the highly industrialized, high-income countries.
World systems theory
__________ is the study of the relationship between people and their physical environment.
Collective behavior lacks the organizational structure of other forms of behavior.
True or False. Collective behavior is very contemporary; it began with the Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s.
Sociologists define __________ as the alteration, modification, or transformation of public policy, culture, or social institutions over time.
__________ is voluntary, often spontaneous activity that is engaged in by a large number of people and typically violates dominant-group norms and values.
__________ crowds provide opportunities for the display of some strong emotion (such as joy, excitement, or grief). People release their pent-up emotions in conjunction with other persons experiencing similar emotions.
A(n) __________ is a highly emotional crowd whose members engage in, or are ready to engage in, violence against a specific target (such as a person, a category of people, or physical property).
The looting and other behavior that took place in Los Angeles after the Rodney King trial and celebrations that turn violent after some sporting events are both examples of __________.
A(n) __________ is a form of crowd behavior that occurs when a large number of people react to a real or perceived threat with strong emotions and self-destructive behavior.
Sometimes acts of civil disobedience become violent, as in a confrontation between protesters and police officers. In this case, a protest crowd becomes a/an __________ crowd.
From the perspective of __________, individuals with similar characteristics or attitudes seek others who are similar with whom they can express their predispositions to behave and feel in different ways.
emergent norm theory
Not all collective behavior takes place in face-to-face collectivities. __________ behavior is collective behavior that takes place when people who may be geographically separated from one another respond to the same event in much the same way.
Tabloid newspapers and magazines such as the National Enquirer and People, and television entertainment “news” programs that present “inside” information on the lives of celebrities, are sources of contemporary __________.