Building on the scenario in Assignments 1 and 2, you are in the final stages of preparing for your presentation at the conference on environment health issues.
Create an eight to ten (8-10) slide PowerPoint presentation in which you:
1. Examine the role of global organizations in managing environmental health issues. Determine two (2) specific ethical concerns these organizations face in safeguarding the health of a global society. Support your analysis.
2. Evaluate the primary negative effects of modern farming on population health. Provide two (2) examples of best practices in the farming industry developed in the private sector to help reduce the health threats associated with industrialized farming. Justify your response.
3. Identify the purpose of epidemiologic research in the study of environmental health issues. Provide a specific example of how epidemiology has been used to manage a recent public health threat. Support your response.
4. Select one (1) environmental hazard that you think represents the most significant health risk to a specific population group. Propose a solution that an organization or industry could develop in the private sector to help eliminate or reduce this risk.
5. Use at least three (3) quality academic resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia does not qualify as an academic resource.Format your assignment according to the following formatting requirements:
a. Be creative in your design so that is appealing to others
b. Ensure that all of the criteria are covered.
c. Create bulleted speaking notes for your presentation to the shareholders in the Notes section of the PowerPoint. Note: You may create or assume any fictitious names, data, or scenarios that have not been established in this assignment for a realistic flow of communication.
d. Use a professional technically written style to graphically convey the information.
e. Include a reference slide. Citations and references must follow APA format. The reference slide is not included in the required presentation length.
The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:
*Examine the opportunities for improvement within environmental health based organizations.
*Explain the role of organizations can have on improving environmental health along the impediments presented.
*Determine the skill sets needed to address current administrative needs within food production.
*Apply best practices of environmental health organizations to a scenario that is reflective of real concerns.
*Use technology and information resources to research issue in environmental health management.
*Write clearly and concisely about social environmental health management using proper writing mechanics.
Running Head: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 1
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 8
Population Health and the Environment
Population Health and the Environment
Population health and environment is constantly becoming a matter of concern in everybody since natural resources and public health are adversely affected by factors such as an increase in population and poverty, and diseases among others. Therefore, for any given community to achieve a sustainable development there is the need to ensure that there is an understanding of the connection between population, health, and the environment without forgetting to tackle the socio-economic context in which they occur (Steenkamer, Drewes, Heijink, Baan & Struijs, 2017). Elsewhere, there is the need for public health professionals and the governments of the day to work together to ensure that specific projects regarding population, health, and environment are established to the complex connection between human beings, their personal health and the environment in which they exist. Doing this will simultaneously increase and improve an access to health care services while at the same time helping communities to manage natural resources around them. This initiative enables them to improve their health as well as their livelihoods while at the same time conserving the critical ecosystems that they largely depend on for their survival. This paper provides comprehensive answers to question regarding population, health and the environment.
It is evident that environmental health research uses four principal methods of research such as epidemiology, risk assessment, risk awareness and risk management. By using epidemiology, the health care providers engage in a quantitative research by primarily focusing on the determinants as well as the distribution of health outcomes in any given community or population under study. Furthermore, this method is used in documenting health effects and their relationship with environmental hazards. Elsewhere, epidemiological studies can be used by healthcare practitioners to study a broad range of hazards that may include social factors that affect the health of a given population or hazardous chemical in the environment (Steenkamer et al., 2017). Therefore, one needs to realize that epidemiological studies increase awareness and understanding of how increased exposure to hazards affect the health status of a community by looking at the research findings as well as how an exposure to environmental hazards can adversely impact the whole community.
Healthcare practitioners use risk assessment methods in conducting environmental health studies as well as how hazards affect the wellness of a population. Risk assessment is an applied science method with a set of procedures that are used for integrating and evaluating gathered scientific information regarding toxicity and exposure to environmental hazards and their risk to the public health. This method is vital in creating and increasing awareness among the community members with regards to increased exposure to environmental hazards thus enabling them to avoid contacts or exposure to chemicals that might have an adverse effect on their overall health.
Public health officials use risk communication method to avail vital information to the members of the public about the potential problems associated with certain hazards within the environment. This is a scientific method or approach for communicating effectively and efficiently to the community about any given situation of high concern or high risk to the community. By using this method, the participants or the members of the community are made aware of the risks associated with certain environmental hazards thus creating awareness of their potential danger which in return reduces the chances of the population getting in contact with the said hazards. Furthermore, the community is made aware of the hazards and involved participate in policy-making processes regarding environmental hazards.
In many cases, public health officials use a risk management method to determine what environmental health risks exist and device a way to manage them in a way that protects both human health and the environment. This method evaluates how best to protect the public health by determining how much of a substance is disposed of into the water basin and the effect it has on the aquatic environment as well as the human health (Steenkamer et al., 2017). Equally, using this method enables public health officials to determine and decide which substance ought to be stored in a hazardous waste disposal facility so as to avoid contact with the human population within a given area. By using this method, the public health officials are able to create awareness and increase an understanding of how exposure to toxic substances or hazards may affect the community by providing vital information on the potential health risks and ecological risks thus reducing the possibility of the public getting into contact with the hazards.
There are three ways that researchers evaluate the danger of environmental hazards on a given population. These include prioritizing and scoring risks, risk probability and impact, and ranking. All the mentioned methods prove to be useful in evaluating the danger of an identified hazard to the community. These methods can be used to evaluate an already exposed community by:
· Prioritizing and scoring risk can be used by researchers to reach a consensus on the level of risk associated with the identified environmental hazards. By doing this researchers can assess and evaluate the impact of the risk as low, medium or high but may agree on the actual score for mapping purposes.
· By using the risk probability and impact method, the researchers may carry out risk impact analysis of the effect of the chosen hazards. It is a useful method in evaluating the potential impact of the exposure to hazards in a given community or population. This can be done by examining the selected representatives of the community.
· By using the ranking approach, researchers will be able to evaluate the level of risks based on the identified hazards’ exposure. This is done by considering the consequences of each risk as well as the probability of its occurrence.
There are various health risks that are present in the natural environment. These include but not limited to poor sanitation and hygiene, tobacco smoking and unsafe drinking water. Poor sanitation and hygiene have adverse effects on human health in the sense that it causes a number of diseases such as diarrhea, cholera, schistosomiasis, and trachoma among others. Poor sanitation and hygiene lead to the degradation of the urban environment whereby there is the rampant disposal of untreated human waste in water bodies leading to waterborne diseases. Elsewhere, every community if fighting for the control of tobacco smoking due to the obvious reason that smoking of cigarettes leads to cancers and another disease (Steenkamer et al., 2017). Moreover, many people have been victims of secondary smoking causing them to contract diseases that have cost them quite a fortune. It is obvious that smoking causes a wide range of respiratory diseases by damaging the airways. On the other hand, unsafe drinking water has been one of the leading causes of deaths in Africa and other parts of the world. It is estimated that the world loses close to eight hundred and forty thousand people each year as a result of drinking contaminated water. Unsafe drinking water causes gastrointestinal infections, vomiting, cramps, diarrhea, and typhoid causing deaths of thousands of people (Yavinsky, Lamere, Patterson & Bremner, 2015). One example of three specific dangers to human health in daily lives is the degradation of the environment. This is because all the mentioned health risks result in the erosion of the natural environment that supports human life.
It is evident that infectious diseases are the leading cause of deaths and disabilities in the United States and other parts of the world. Furthermore, the historical facts reveal that infectious diseases are increasingly threatening the public health both in the United States and elsewhere and substantially contribute to the escalation of healthcare costs. Therefore, in this regard, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention plays a significant part in supporting health promotions, preventions and preparedness through the creation of awareness about infectious diseases so as to improve the overall public health. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention works in partnership with different levels of government right from the federal to the local level to monitor and prevent the outbreak of infectious diseases in the United States. Furthermore, it implements disease prevention strategies as well as maintaining national health statistics. Equally, the CDC educates the public on how to recognize and avoid contracting infectious diseases as well as increasing surveillance and reforming health policies (Yavinsky et al., 2015. One of the most significant environmental hazards that prove to be a challenge to the CDC is the prevalence of chemicals in the air. For instance, it is evident that nearly all American citizens who drive to and from work use vehicles that burn fossil fuels to propel their engines. This causes carbon emission into the air leading to quite a number of diseases associated with the trapping of solar energy. For instance, it is factual that an increased exposure to carbon emission causes respiratory allergies such as asthma.
Steenkamer, B. M., Drewes, H. W., Heijink, R., Baan, C. A., & Struijs, J. N. (2017). Defining population health management: a scoping review of the literature. Population health management, 20(1), 74-85.
Yavinsky, R. W., Lamere, C., Patterson, K. P., & Bremner, J. (2015). The impact of population health and environment projects: a synthesis of the evidence.
Running Head: HEALTH RISKS
HEALTH RISKS 6
Health Risks, Manufacturing, and the Production of Energy
Method of energy production
A number of energy production methods are currently used in the production of electricity and other forms of energy. The following paper will be assessing fossil fuels; with coal being the main method of energy production considered. The role of coal in the production of global electricity has been evidently seen, with coal alone providing a total of 37% world’s electricity. For coal to produce electricity, it is first of all mined and taken to the coal plants where its size is reduced so as to increase the surface area for combustion to take place quickly. The burnt coal is then taken to a boiler, which creates steam that is ultimately used in driving turbines, hence, generating electricity.
Coal has a number of significant health risks; it has been associated with emission of a number of gases, which are harmful to the existence of humans. Coal has mostly been associated with the production of large amounts of carbon dioxide, a significant greenhouse gas which takes a long time to be phased out completely from the atmosphere. Other than carbon dioxide which affects human health indirectly through the impacts of global warming and climate change, coal also produces gases such as mercury and arsenic, which are important health hazards. Other toxins emitted from coal power plants include lead, cadmium, chromium, furans, nickel, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde and dioxins, among many others. Due to these pollutants, coal power production has been associated with a number of health risks, including, cancer, kidney problems, lung issues, problems in the respiratory and the nervous system. Memory, behavior and learning are also at risk due to these method of energy production (Kampa & Castanas, 2008).
To reduce the above stated health impacts, there is need for coal power plants to employ clean coal technologies. There are a number of these technologies and one best which would significantly reduce the impact of the above risks is the management of wastes from coal. Coal itself has a number of wastes which in most occasions appear as emissions. There is need to employ coal cleaning as a method used to reduce emissions when coal is burnt. Other methods of managing wastes include flue gas desulfurization, gasification, and sequestration, use of ultra clean coal and use of low NOx burners. All these perform an important role in reducing the health impacts of coal combustion. Managing wastes from the power plants is an excellent method as it ensures most of the health hazards have been dealt with before the combustion process allows them into the atmosphere. This is also a preventative strategy rather than taking actions once the damage has already been done, thus, making it an important recommendation.
Major global health issues related to climate change and model to mitigate the negative impacts of climate change
Global warming, as a result of increase in greenhouse gases within the atmosphere has resulted in various changes within the world climate. Currently, the world has begun to see the effects in which climate change may have, and could go worse if nothing is done immediately from now. There are several global health issues associated with climate change, as will be discussed in this section.
Climate change has greatly contributed into undernutrition, basically due to crop declines. Unpredictable weather patterns has made it difficult for farmers to cultivate their crops successfully. Globally, most agricultures not only in the developing nations, but also in the developed world, are rain fed. Failure towards having sufficient amounts of rain leads to crop failure and in the end resulting to food insecurity. Hunger and highly priced food products become the end result and ultimately, humans suffer from undernutrition.
There is a possibility for infectious diseases to become a menace once again especially to the developed nations. Global warming results into hotter days, more rains in certain regions and high humidity, which are excellent conditions for some pathogens. For instance, it is estimated that by 2080, there will be a great number of ticks in the eastern region of the United States and this will in the end lead into people suffering from infectious diseases. There is a possibility for other pathogens to mutate and become more destructive to human health, as part of their adaptation towards the threat of climate change.
Mental health is also another major global health issue associated with climate change. This is as a result of trauma which comes with several global disasters associated with climate change. Floods, are likely to be experienced in the wet areas while intense droughts are also anticipated in the dry regions of the earth. Fear and anxiety due to the unpredictability of climate change impacts are also sources of mental health issues. Depression which can lead to suicide are also possible mental issues which are as a result of climate change.
Intense heat as a result of climate change increases the allergy seasons. This means that people with allergic conditions will be under jeopardy of being affected more and more by allergic reactions. Respiratory issues due to dust and other particulate matter may also increase the rates of allergic reactions within people. More rains would also increase indoor air pollution, mold and also fungi, which are all health hazards (Rahel & Olden, 2008).
To escape the negative impacts of climate change, developed nations have focused on two approaches; one is the reduction of greenhouse gas emission and the other is adapting to climate change. Between these two models, I would propose to the developed nations to reduce the rates of emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. This model involves coming up with technologies which are important in the reduction of greenhouse gas emission and also the stabilizing of the greenhouse gases. Focusing on the energy sector, for instance, there is need to focus on clean sources of energy such as geothermal power and hydroelectric power which have less impacts to the environment, with regards to climate change. With the transport sector, there is need to focus on alternative sources of power to run the engine. Electric vehicles, for example, have less impacts compared to vehicles running on gasoline. Focusing on such clean energy, would lead into the atmosphere naturally stabilizing greenhouse gases with time, and will as well reduce the amount of greenhouse gases which are emitted into the atmosphere (Rahel & Olden, 2008).
Health risks associated with waste produced during manufacturing of products, two ethical concerns related to the practices and a strategy to modify the practices
Manufacturing of products within companies present a number of health risks. Chemicals such as solvents, bases and acids may lead into skin problems among other types of diseases. Noise from machines used during the manufacturing process are also a health hazard as they may lead into hearing impairments. Trips, falls and slips due to the kind of floor used or wet floor conditions are examples of physical hazards which may affect workers in manufacturing companies.
Compliance and governance issues is the first major ethical concern related to the above practices. Most organizations have certain safety practices in which the management must oversee while all employees must abide by. Whenever such disasters occur, it is either the failure of the management to oversee, or the failure of the employees to comply. The second ethical concern is with regards to the role of management. The management must ensure all workers work in a safe environment; they must provide all personal protective equipment needed to keep employees safe. Failure to provide the employees with such may lead to the above stated health risks. To modify these practices, there is need for both management and the employees to stand up to their roles and perform as required. The management must provide every safety equipment needed while the workers must abide by all the safety rules to avoid accidents in manufacturing plants.
Three key government regulations created to protect the population and the environment from effects of hazardous wastes produced from manufacturing
The first major regulation falls under occupational safety and health act of 1970. This is a regulation which was developed to protect employees from any form of risk or hazard within the workplace. It demands employers to ensure all employees are free from any form of hazard that may negatively impact their health.
The United States of America also has the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act which has been given the mandate to properly manage hazardous and non-hazardous solid waste. It offers a framework on how manufacturing companies ought to dispose of hazardous waste to ensure they neither affect the environment nor the people (LaGrega, Buckingham & Evans, 2010).
Clean Air Act of 1970 is a significant regulation which was developed to limit the emission of hazardous gases into the atmosphere. The regulation also controls air pollution by ensuring manufacturing companies perform an important role releasing gases which are less harmful to the environment and the people at large.
Kampa, M., & Castanas, E. (2008). Human health effects of air pollution. Environmental pollution, 151(2), 362-367.
LaGrega, M. D., Buckingham, P. L., & Evans, J. C. (2010). Hazardous waste management. Waveland Press.
Rahel, F. J., & Olden, J. D. (2008). Assessing the effects of climate change on aquatic invasive species. Conservation biology, 22(3), 521-533.