Respond to each peer initial post and question at the end with a response about 3-4 sentences long.

Respond to each peer initial post and question at the end with a response about 3-4 sentences long.

Peer 1

Voluntary organizations funded by public contributions have existed since the seventeenth century; however, didn’t become a unified sector until the 1970s (Renz, 2016, pg. 7). Because non-profits are diverse and complex it can be difficult to define and make inclusive to one definition. It can refer to charitable tax-exempt organizations, civic organizations that do not allow the deductibility of donations, and unincorporated organizations (Renz, 2016, pg. 3).

The non-profit sector covers a broad spectrum of public services such as hospitals, foundations, charities, religious institutions, and disaster relief organizations. Acknowledging the importance of non-profits is easy as these organizations attempt to address the issues of millions of people whether it be donations, programs, or services. Although tax exempt, government policies play a crucial role in the growing number of nonprofit organizations either indirectly by providing incentives or directly through grants and contracts (Renz, 2016, pg. 17). Non-profits don’t exist to make a profit but to use excess resources to meet needs that the government alone cannot fulfill. These organizations are not prohibited from earning revenue as long as the profit-making activities are related to the recognized program purpose.

The three main sectors private, non-profit, and the government share several similarities and key differences. One of the main differences is how their resources are handled. A non-profit organizations’ money is legally required to support its mission while private entities are able to distribute their resources to shareholders. Government agencies redirect their surplus resources back into government initiatives. Political shifts also highlight additional differences. As the political power changes so do the priorities in governmental agencies and the availability of public sector programs (The role of non-profits vs government and for profit sectors, 2015). Political shifts can garner more support and funding for non-profits but because the organizations secure funding from outside sources, programs can continue indefinitely as long as resources are available without any effect of a political change.

Non-profits are typically restricted with their work inside of the community as long as its business and mission related. Most restrictions imposed on non-profits are administered through state and federal government agencies through tax compliance, incorporation rules, and political participation.

Peer 2

What is the nonprofit sector? A nonprofit sector is an organization that provides a service(s) that is not conducted for the purpose of making a profit. The organization is sustained by donations, sales of goods and services, or by revenue from the government (Wolfe). The United States has three sectors government, private, and nonprofit. The private nonprofit organization with a few services of funding and mostly foundation is run by a single individual, family, or corporations. A public nonprofit organization receives from the public at large. The government operated by the federal, state, local government and is appointed by the commissioners.

So why do charities exist? When you think of charities, you may think of providing a service for someone in need. Charities are endorsed by the government because charities are put in place to help with the community and improve the well-being of individuals, animals, the environment, etc. A nonprofit organization is funded by the grants and donations. These funds are granted when an individual or corporation believe the nonprofit organization goals and missions are aligned with theirs. Charities are also put in place to raise awareness of the condition or maybe even something that’s affecting the community.

The different nonprofit sectors of the United States were defined earlier. The main difference between the public sector and the private is the public sectors focus on the betterment of the community. Public sectors are usually funded by the government along with other funds. While the private sector is usually more personal. The private sector is funded by corporations and also individuals. The public sector rules and regulations are strictly made by the government. Although, the private nonprofit organization still have to abide by the law their rules and regulations are made by a single individual or a group of individuals.

The limits of a nonprofit organization depend on many different factors, the State, the grantors, and the actual organizations’ objectives and goals. There are rules and laws each organization must follow.

Peer 3

The federal budgetary process is meant to echo the concerns of American citizens and is a “participatory process” that is carried out by Congress.  The federal budgetary process consists of five key steps starting with the president submitting a budget request directly to Congress, next, the House and Senate pass budget resolutions, then the House and Senate vote in appropriations, bills, and reconcile differences, finally, the president then signs each appropriation bill and the budget becomes law. The president, Congress, the House of Representatives and the Senate all have an opportunity to express there concerns even multiple times being that the process requires that each entity be involved in the actual passing of the budgetary bill. The difference between each group is that the president has the ability to submit a request directly to Congress, Congress has the its own budget office which “provides non-partisan analysis” (Amadeo, 2018) the Senate and House also have their own budget committees and can review the federal budget as well as their own. I believe that the reason some entities have more involvement than others is because for the system of checks and balances to work properly, the priorities of the American people must be upheld and that takes bipartisan as well as non-partisan views to be taken into account. Prior to 1974, Congress only referred to the debt ceiling which is much more cut and dry but limits the power of the branches of government. The federal budgetary process allows for better representation of the Americans affected by budgetary changes.

Peer 4

In the reading, understood there are 5 steps in the federal budgetary process. First the federal agency as well other will submit budgetary request for review. Then this request or forwarded to the president and the budgetary request is submitted to congress. At this time both the house and senate will review and budget as well as resolution. The conference committee budget resolution from the house and senate appropriations subcommittee will markup and vote. Then house floor as well as senate floor will vote on it and if agree its forward to president how will veto or sign in to law. It goes to the Senate with a special rule, it can pass with a majority and cannot be filibustered. Other legislation can be filibustered and requires 60 votes to end the filibuster.

Because checks and balances is important a very imperative part of the constitution, with checks and balances in place. Each of the three branches of government can limit the powers of the others. This way, no one branch becomes too powerful. The framers shied away from giving any branch of the new government too much power. The separation of powers provides a system of shared power known as Checks and Balances. Three branches are created as what we know as Constitution.

The opportunities different groups and entities have to make their concerns known while the budget is being developed? The history of budgeting begins of controlling the allocation of resources. In the private sector, this control emphasized financial accounting which later conflicted with management accounting. In public and not-for-profit organizations, this control emphasized compliance with legislative, administrative mandates, and regulations of other oversight bodies. The issue of performance in government became a priority. Years later benchmarking became a new focus as a way of improving productivity. This chapter presents steps involved in the development and use of performance measures within the budgetary context. Emphasis is on how the budget-performance measures are linked to one another.

What are the differences in the opportunities afforded to various types of groups to provide that input? The focus is on an organization’s mission, goals, and objectives. Best practices are gained through the performance measurement process. Benchmarking on the other hand, is concern with comparisons gained from the performance management process. It allows an organization to compare its performance with others that are known for their outstanding performances. This publication looked at various types of information that local governments could use to monitor and assess how well the services were being delivered.

Why do you think some groups are given more opportunities and some fewer? Because of their productivity and what they are trying to deliver as far as goods and services.


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