WHAT ARE SOME PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF FREEZING POINT DEPRESSION, BOILING POINT ELEVATION, AND VAPOR PRESSURE LOWERING?

WHAT ARE SOME PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF FREEZING POINT DEPRESSION, BOILING POINT ELEVATION, AND VAPOR PRESSURE LOWERING?

Write a 500-word reflection of the team discussion. Include a brief summary of the team discussion on individual results. Discuss and compare your responses to the end-of-lab questions. What changes would you make, if any, if you did this lab again? Include a discussion ofdifferences between the individual data sets. What are the real-world applications of the labs?Write a 500-word reflection of the team discussion. Include a brief summary of the team discussion on individual results. Discuss and compare your responses to the end-of-lab questions. What changes would you make, if any, if you did this lab again? Include a discussion ofdifferences between the individual data sets. What are the real-world applications of the labs? Format your reflection consistent with APA guidelines. Format your reflection consistent with APA guidelines.Write a 500-word reflection of the team discussion. Include a brief summary of the team discussion on individual results. Discuss and compare your responses to the end-of-lab questions. What changes would you make, if any, if you did this lab again? Include a discussion ofdifferences between the individual data sets. What are the real-world applications of the labs? Format your reflection consistent with APA guidelines.

Colligative Properties & Osmotic Pressure

Sung Kim

CHM 151

 

Data Table 1: Pure Water and Salt Solution

Seconds Distilled H2O Room Temp Distilled H2O Ice Bath Saltwater Room Temp Saltwater Ice Bath
0 22 21 22 22
30 5 7
60 0 4
90 -1 1
120 -1 -1
150 -2 0
180 -1 0
210 0 0
240 0 0
270 0 0
300 0 0
330 0 0
360 0 0
390 0 0
420 0 0
450 0 0
480 0 0
510 0 0
540 0 0
570 0 0
600 0 0
630 0 0
660 0 0

 

Questions Part 1

  1. The graph shows the temperature on the left with the time (s) on the x-axis. The color shows the difference between the distilled H2O and the saltwater.
  2. The two compares pretty similar but the saltwater was more direct in getting to a constant Distilled water took a little more time as experienced the super cool as the temperature reached down to -2 Celsius before returning back up to 0.
  3. Knowing the depression in freezing point, we can add an anti-freeze to the car to prevent the car fuel from freezing. The antifreeze also causes an elevation in the boiling point, so it helped with a car overheating in the summer. So antifreeze can be a prime example of the freezing point depression and boiling point elevation.

Questions Part 2

  1. The dialysis bag is comparable to that of the cell membranes in the kidney. Dialysis is using a membrane as a filter to separate waste from blood. Dialysis tube removes waste materials from a patient’s blood by passing it through the kidney and it overall improves the kidney functions and the overall health of the body.
  2. We have a hypertonic solution because we have more solid on the outside of the cell. Pure corn syrup is a hypertonic solution because it has more solids than water. This solution causes the cell to shrivel and decrease in size, which is what we observed as the egg collapsed.

Problem for Lab Report:

 

At 23.6°C, 0.500 L of a solution containing 0.302 grams of an antibiotic has an osmotic pressure of 8.34 mmHg. What is its molecular mass?

 

Lets use the formula n=MRT

8.34 mmHG(1 atm/760mmHG) = .010974 atm

.010974 atm [(0.0821L.atm/K.mol)(296.6K)] = .000451 mole/L

.500L(.000451 mole/L) = .000225 mole of antibiotic

Molar mass of antibiotic = .302 gram/.000225 = 1342.22g/mol

 

 

 

Colligative Properties & Osmotic Pressure

Sung Kim

CHM 151

 

Data Table 1: Pure Water and Salt Solution

Seconds Distilled H2O Room Temp Distilled H2O Ice Bath Saltwater Room Temp Saltwater Ice Bath
0 22 21 22 22
30 5 7
60 0 4
90 -1 1
120 -1 -1
150 -2 0
180 -1 0
210 0 0
240 0 0
270 0 0
300 0 0
330 0 0
360 0 0
390 0 0
420 0 0
450 0 0
480 0 0
510 0 0
540 0 0
570 0 0
600 0 0
630 0 0
660 0 0

 

Questions Part 1

  1. The graph shows the temperature on the left with the time (s) on the x-axis. The color shows the difference between the distilled H2O and the saltwater.
  2. The two compares pretty similar but the saltwater was more direct in getting to a constant Distilled water took a little more time as experienced the super cool as the temperature reached down to -2 Celsius before returning back up to 0.
  3. Knowing the depression in freezing point, we can add an anti-freeze to the car to prevent the car fuel from freezing. The antifreeze also causes an elevation in the boiling point, so it helped with a car overheating in the summer. So antifreeze can be a prime example of the freezing point depression and boiling point elevation.

Questions Part 2

  1. The dialysis bag is comparable to that of the cell membranes in the kidney. Dialysis is using a membrane as a filter to separate waste from blood. Dialysis tube removes waste materials from a patient’s blood by passing it through the kidney and it overall improves the kidney functions and the overall health of the body.
  2. We have a hypertonic solution because we have more solid on the outside of the cell. Pure corn syrup is a hypertonic solution because it has more solids than water. This solution causes the cell to shrivel and decrease in size, which is what we observed as the egg collapsed.

Problem for Lab Report:

 

At 23.6°C, 0.500 L of a solution containing 0.302 grams of an antibiotic has an osmotic pressure of 8.34 mmHg. What is its molecular mass?

 

Lets use the formula n=MRT

8.34 mmHG(1 atm/760mmHG) = .010974 atm

.010974 atm [(0.0821L.atm/K.mol)(296.6K)] = .000451 mole/L

.500L(.000451 mole/L) = .000225 mole of antibiotic

Molar mass of antibiotic = .302 gram/.000225 = 1342.22g/mol

Colligative Properties & Osmotic Pressure

Sung Kim

CHM 151

 

Data Table 1: Pure Water and Salt Solution

Seconds Distilled H2O Room Temp Distilled H2O Ice Bath Saltwater Room Temp Saltwater Ice Bath
0 22 21 22 22
30 5 7
60 0 4
90 -1 1
120 -1 -1
150 -2 0
180 -1 0
210 0 0
240 0 0
270 0 0
300 0 0
330 0 0
360 0 0
390 0 0
420 0 0
450 0 0
480 0 0
510 0 0
540 0 0
570 0 0
600 0 0
630 0 0
660 0 0

 

Questions Part 1

  1. The graph shows the temperature on the left with the time (s) on the x-axis. The color shows the difference between the distilled H2O and the saltwater.
  2. The two compares pretty similar but the saltwater was more direct in getting to a constant Distilled water took a little more time as experienced the super cool as the temperature reached down to -2 Celsius before returning back up to 0.
  3. Knowing the depression in freezing point, we can add an anti-freeze to the car to prevent the car fuel from freezing. The antifreeze also causes an elevation in the boiling point, so it helped with a car overheating in the summer. So antifreeze can be a prime example of the freezing point depression and boiling point elevation.

Questions Part 2

  1. The dialysis bag is comparable to that of the cell membranes in the kidney. Dialysis is using a membrane as a filter to separate waste from blood. Dialysis tube removes waste materials from a patient’s blood by passing it through the kidney and it overall improves the kidney functions and the overall health of the body.
  2. We have a hypertonic solution because we have more solid on the outside of the cell. Pure corn syrup is a hypertonic solution because it has more solids than water. This solution causes the cell to shrivel and decrease in size, which is what we observed as the egg collapsed.

Problem for Lab Report:

 

At 23.6°C, 0.500 L of a solution containing 0.302 grams of an antibiotic has an osmotic pressure of 8.34 mmHg. What is its molecular mass?

 

Lets use the formula n=MRT

8.34 mmHG(1 atm/760mmHG) = .010974 atm

.010974 atm [(0.0821L.atm/K.mol)(296.6K)] = .000451 mole/L

.500L(.000451 mole/L) = .000225 mole of antibiotic

Molar mass of antibiotic = .302 gram/.000225 = 1342.22g/mol

 

 

 

Colligative Properties & Osmotic Pressure

Sung Kim

CHM 15

 

 

Data Table 1: Pure Water and Salt Solution

Seconds Distilled H2O Room Temp Distilled H2O Ice Bath Saltwater Room Temp Saltwater Ice Bath
0 22 21 22 22
30 5 7
60 0 4
90 -1 1
120 -1 -1
150 -2 0
180 -1 0
210 0 0
240 0 0
270 0 0
300 0 0
330 0 0
360 0 0
390 0 0
420 0 0
450 0 0
480 0 0
510 0 0
540 0 0
570 0 0
600 0 0
630 0 0
660 0 0

 

Questions Part 1

  1. The graph shows the temperature on the left with the time (s) on the x-axis. The color shows the difference between the distilled H2O and the saltwater.
  2. The two compares pretty similar but the saltwater was more direct in getting to a constant Distilled water took a little more time as experienced the super cool as the temperature reached down to -2 Celsius before returning back up to 0.
  3. Knowing the depression in freezing point, we can add an anti-freeze to the car to prevent the car fuel from freezing. The antifreeze also causes an elevation in the boiling point, so it helped with a car overheating in the summer. So antifreeze can be a prime example of the freezing point depression and boiling point elevation.

Questions Part 2

  1. The dialysis bag is comparable to that of the cell membranes in the kidney. Dialysis is using a membrane as a filter to separate waste from blood. Dialysis tube removes waste materials from a patient’s blood by passing it through the kidney and it overall improves the kidney functions and the overall health of the body.
  2. We have a hypertonic solution because we have more solid on the outside of the cell. Pure corn syrup is a hypertonic solution because it has more solids than water. This solution causes the cell to shrivel and decrease in size, which is what we observed as the egg collapsed.

Problem for Lab Report:

 

At 23.6°C, 0.500 L of a solution containing 0.302 grams of an antibiotic has an osmotic pressure of 8.34 mmHg. What is its molecular mass?

 

Lets use the formula n=MRT

8.34 mmHG(1 atm/760mmHG) = .010974 atm

.010974 atm [(0.0821L.atm/K.mol)(296.6K)] = .000451 mole/L

.500L(.000451 mole/L) = .000225 mole of antibiotic

Molar mass of antibiotic = .302 gram/.000225 = 1342.22g/mol

SEITZ, CASEY   Week 2 LAB REPORT

 

Make two graphs of your data. On one graph plot the data from the pure water. On the other

graph plot the data from the salt solution. On both plot temperature on the y-axis and time on

the x-axis.

  1. Record the freezing point of the pure water and the freezing point of the salt solution. (see graphs)

 

  1. How do these two freezing points compare? The freezing points for both the pure/distilled water and for the salt solution were the same; at sixty seconds, the temperatures of the water and the sodium solutions were 0°C.

 

  1. What are some practical applications of freezing point depression, boiling point elevation,

and vapor pressure lowering?   Cooking and baking are two of the most prevalent applications for referencing freezing point depression and boiling point elevation.  During the winter months, freezing point depression is especially important when de-icing the roadways.  The salt on the roadways depresses the freezing point of the water from precipitation, preventing dangerous ice accumulation.

 

 

Questions – Part 2

  1. To what biological structure is the dialysis bag comparable? How is it similar? How is it

different?

The dialysis tubing resembles, in function, the kidney- or more specifically the glomerulus.  As fluid flows into the glomerulus, the filtrates travel across a membrane into the Bowman’s Capsule where filtrates and excess fluid eventually make their way to the urinary bladder.  The dialysis tubing is a bit different in the sense that its’ structure does not include filtration slits or fenestrations, although it does facilitate osmosis.  The composition of the glomerulus allows it to be selective regarding what passes through it, where the dialysis tubing allows only for osmosis and equilibrium to be reached, and nothing further.

 

  1. In biological systems if a cell is placed into a salt solution in which the salt concentration in the solution is lower than in the cell, the solution is said to be hypotonic. Water will move from

the solution into the cell, causing lysis of the cell. In other words, the cell will expand to the

point where it bursts. On the other hand, if a cell is placed into a salt solution in which the salt

concentration in the solution is higher than in the cell, the solution is said to be hypertonic.

In this case, water will move from the cell into the solution, causing cellular death through

crenation or cellular shrinkage. In your experiment is the Karo® hypertonic or hypotonic to

the egg?

The Karo syrup was definitely hypertonic.  The egg was disgustingly shriveled (and gross to touch) after having been mostly submerged in the Karo for almost twenty-four hours.

 

  1. Historically certain colligative properties – freezing point depression, boiling point elevation,

and osmotic pressure – have been used to determine molecular mass. (Now there are

instrumental methods to determine this.) Of these three, osmotic pressure is the most

sensitive and gives the best results. Molecular mass can be found according the following

equation:

Π = MRT

Where: Π = osmotic pressure,

= molarity of solution,

R = the ideal gas constant (0.0821 L×atm/mol×K), and

T = Kelvin temperature.

 

Problem for Lab Report:

At 23.6°C, 0.500 L of a solution containing 0.302 grams of an antibiotic has an osmotic pressure

of 8.34 mmHg. What is its molecular mass?

 

П=MRT     П= 0.0197 atm   M= .000809 L/mol

R=                    T= 296.6K

8.34mmHg * 1atm/760mmHg= 0.0197 atm

M= 0.0197atm/(0.0821*296.6)= .000809 L/mol

Molarity= .000809 L/mol/ .500L= .000405 mol abx

If .000405 mol= .302g, then 1 mol= .302g/.000405 mol= 745.68 g/mol (molar mass of antibiotic)

 

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