1.When defining crime, which of the following is not one of the definitional perspectives found in contemporary criminology?a.Politicalb.Psychologicalc.Environmental d.Sociological2.“Human conduct that is in violation of the criminal laws of a state, the federal government, or a local jurisdiction that has the power to make such laws” is a definition ofcriminology.crime. criminal.deviance.3.The legalistic approach would suggest that crime is socially relative in the sense that is created bya. legislative activity. b. social mores.c. the democratic process.d. human conduct.4.According to John F. Galliher, legal definitions of criminality are arrived at through a __________ process.a.sociologicalb.mainstreamc.political d.psychological5.The belief that crime is the result of criteria that have been built into the law by powerful groups is the basis of the __________ perspective on crime.a.legalb.political c.sociologicald.psychological6.The belief that crime is an antisocial act of such a nature that repression is necessary to preserve the existing system of society is the basis of the __________ perspective on crime.a.legalb.politicalc.sociological d.psychological7.The psychological perspective sees crime primarily asa. a violation of a law.b.an offense against human relationships.c.a form of social maladjustment.d.problem behavior. 8.Which of the following statements about deviance and crime is/are true?a.All deviant behavior is criminal.b.All criminal behavior is deviant.c.Deviant behavior and criminal behavior overlap. d.Deviant behavior and criminal behavior are identical.9.Because you were late for this exam, you exceeded the speed limit by about 10 to 15 miles per hour while driving to class. This is an example of behavior that isa.deviant but not criminal.b.criminal but not deviant. c.both deviant and criminal.d.neither deviant nor criminal.10.The gun control debate is an example of the __________ perspective.a.Consensusb.Psychologicalc.Sociologicald.Pluralistic 11.One who studies crime, criminals, and criminal behavior is called aa.scientist.b.criminal justice professional.c.criminologist. d.criminalism.12.The official publication of the American Society of Criminology isa.Criminology. b.Justice Quarterly.c.The Journal of Quantitative Criminology.d.Crime and Delinquency.13.Which of the following jobs probably would not fall within the field of criminalistics?a.Forensics examinerb.Polygraph operatorc.Fingerprint examinerd.Correctional officer 14.A police officer or probation officer is best described as aa.criminologist.b.criminalist.c.criminal justice professional. d.none of the above15.An academic or research criminologist generally holds a __________ degree.a.doctoral b.lawc.medicald.none of the above16.Criminologists work fora.universities and other academic institutions.b.federal research agencies.c.private research organizations.d.all of the above 17.Which of the following is not one of the three principal divisions of criminology proposed by Edwin Sutherland?a.The sociology of lawb.The scientific analysis of the causes of crime.c.Crime controld.The study of the criminal justice system 18.The field of study that is concerned primarily with the causes and consequences of crime isa.criminology. b.criminal justice.c.criminality.d.criminalistics.19.Criminal justice emphasizesa.the application of the criminal law.b.the study of the components of the criminal justice system.c.both a and b d.none of the above20.A(n) __________ theory of crime is one that attempts to explain all or most forms of criminal conduct through a single, overarching approach.a.completeb.unicausalc.integratedd.general 21.A(n) __________ theory does not necessarily attempt to explain all criminality.a.generalb.integrated c.unicausald.complete22.The social problems perspective holds that crime isa.a manifestation of underlying social problems. b.chosen by individual perpetrators.c.not going to be solved by social programs.d.none of the above23.The social responsibility perspective is affiliated with __________ theory.a.routine activitiesb.culture conflictc.rational choice d.social learning24._________ is the process by which one acquires the cultural values of one’s society.a.Socialization b.Integrationc.Social relativityd.Criminalistics25.A large number of modern criminological theories fall within the framework of _________ theory.a.psychologicalb.legalc.economicd.sociological 26.The evidence used in evidence-based criminology refers toa.evidence gathered by the police.b.evidence gathered by crime scene investigators.c.evidence used in criminal trials.d.scientific evidence. 27.A(n) __________ is a series of interrelated propositions which attempt to describe, explain, predict, and ultimately control some class of events.a.hypothesisb.theory c.variabled.experiment28.__________ research is undertaken for the sake of advancing scientific knowledge.a.Pure b.Appliedc.Secondaryd.Primary29.The first step in any research is to a.develop a research design.b.review the findings.c.choose a data collection technique.d.identify a problem. 30.The second stage of the research process is tob.review the findings.c.choose a data collection technique.d.identify a problem.31.__________ is the process of turning a simple hypothesis into one that is testable.a.Theory buildingb.Variable developmentc.Operationalization d.Hypothesis testing32.Confounding effects area.explanations that rival the explanatory power of the hypothesis under study. b.experimental interventions that cause behavioral changes.c.a method of increasing external validity.d.a method of increasing internal validity.33.__________ involves specific events that occur between the first and second observations and which may affect measurement. a.Statistical regressionb.Testingc.History d.Maturation34.A differential loss of respondents from comparison groups in a research study may result ina.experimental mortality. b.differential selection.c.maturation.d.self-selection.35.Which of the following threats to internal validity would fall under the problem of experimental mortality?a.The arrival of a new prison warden during the implementation of a study on violence in a prison.b.Subjects become fatigued during the study and their response time is affected.c.During a study involving interviews of inmates by students, a number of the student interviewers graduate and are replaced by new student interviewers.d.During a study comparing two groups of inmates, many of the members from one of the study groups are approved for parole. 36.Which of the following factors may threaten the external validity of a research design?a.Historyb.Instrumentationc.Self-selection d.Statistical regression37.Which of the following factors is not a threat to external validity?a.Self-selectionb.Multiple treatment interferencec.Differential selection d.Reactive effects of testing38.__________ is the process by which individuals are assigned to study groups without biases or differences resulting from selection.a.Operationalizationb.Randomization c.Intersubjectivityd.Net effects39.A researcher involved in a participant observation study makes his/her presence known to the group s/he is observing but does not attempt to influence the group’s activities. This researcher is using the __________ strategy. a.participant as observer b.observer as complete participantc.experimental observerd.control subject participant40.Techniques that produce measurable results which can be analyzed statistically are a.tests of significance.b.qualitative methods.c.intersubjectivity.41.Which of the following statements would probably not be made by an adherent of the Classical School?a.I believe that punishment is necessary to deter criminals from committing more crimes.b.I believe that people have certain basic rights and that if the government infringes upon these rights, it should be dissolved.c.I believe that people’s behavior is determined by pain and pleasure.d.I believe that forces beyond a person’s control can affect his or her choice of criminal or non-criminal behavior. 42._________ are time-honored customs which are preferred but which do not threaten the survival of the social group if they are violated.a.Moresb.Folkways c.Lawsd.Crimes43.Which of the following is an example of a mala in se offense?a.assault b.prostitutionc.drug used.vagrancy44.Which of the following is not a mala prohibita crime?a.Gamblingb.Premarital sexual behaviorc.Drug used.Theft 45.Which of the following works was written by Thomas Hobbes?a.Essay Concerning Human Understandingb.The Spirit of Lawsc.The Rights of Mand.Leviathan 46.The belief that the natural human condition at birth is that of a blank slate is ascribed toa.Baruch Spinoza.b.John Locke.c.Jean-Jacques Rousseau.d.Rene Descartes.47.Which of the following was not a significant Enlightenment thinker?a.Thomas Hobbesb.John Lockec.Francis Bacond.William Sumner 48.Which of the following was not one of the three types of crimes outlined by Beccaria?a.Crimes that ran contrary to the social orderb.Crimes that threatened the security of the statec.Crimes that injured citizens or their propertyd.Crimes that involved no victims other than society 49.According to Beccaria, which of the following crimes should be punished by a fine?a.Theft b.Rapec.Assault and batteryd.Inciting a revolution50.What punishment would Beccaria impose for the crime of inciting a revolution?a.A large fineb.A term of imprisonmentc.Corporal punishmentd.Death 51.According to the __________ principle of the Classical School, humans have free will.a.due processb.rationality c.hedonismd.human rights52.The principle of _______ is not one of the five fundamental principles of the Classical School.a.subjectivity b.rationalityc.hedonismd.due process53.The variety of rational choice theory that builds on an emerging emphasis on victimization is known asa.situational choice theory.b.situational crime prevention.c.routine activities theory. d.classical theory.54.Routine activities theory was developed byb.Hal Pepinsky and Richard Quinney.c.Ronald Clarke and Derek Cornish.d.Walter DeKeseredy and Jock Young.55.According to routine activities theory, which of the following is not necessary for a crime to occur?a.The presence of a motivated offenderb.The absence of a capable guardianc.The presence of a defensible victim d.The presence of a suitable target56.The situational choice perspective was developed bya.Lawrence Cohen and Marcus Felson. b.Hal Pepinsky and Richard Quinney.d.Walter DeKeseredy and Jock Young.57.The Seductions of Crime was written bya.Marcus Felson.c.David Weisburd.d.James Q. Wilson.58.Which of the following would a rational choice theorist be most likely to consider a likely factor in crime causation?a.Povertyb.A poor home environmentc.Inadequate socializationd.Individual choice 59.________ seeks to prevent a particular offender from engaging in repeat criminality.a.General deterrenceb.Retributionc.Specific deterrence d.RecidivismTrue/False- a) True b) False60.Evidence-based criminology is founded upon the experimental method. 61.The evidence used in evidence-based criminology is the same type of evidence that is used in a criminal trial. 62.Gathering facts is sufficient to offer a satisfactory explanation of crime. 63.Research involves the use of standardized, systematic procedures in the search for knowledge. 64.The final state of the research process involves reviewing the findings. 69.The Classical School sees humans as fundamentally rational. 70.According to Sumner, mores and folkways govern behavior in large, complex societies. 72.The Twelve Tables regulated family, religious, and economic life. 73.Under the development of the Classical School, crime came to be explained as a spiritual shortcoming. 75.There is one primary viewpoint within the field of criminology as to the fundamental nature of crime. 76.The legalistic perspective defines crime as conduct in violation of the criminal law. 77.American statutory law is based on English common law. 78.The political perspective defines crime in terms of popular notions of right and wrong. 79.The sociological perspective sees crime as encompassing any harmful acts. 80.A unified definition of crime is simple to achieve. 81.All criminal behavior is deviant. 82.All forms of deviant behavior are violations of the criminal law. 83.Some types of common and accepted behavior may be illegal. 84.It is possible for a behavior to be illegal in one jurisdiction but legal in another. 85.A judge is a criminalist.86.Criminology is an interdisciplinary field. 87.The social responsibility perspective considers the cause of crime to be individual perpetrators. 88.According to the text, crime is an isolated individual activity. 89.Crime does not affect everyone equally. 90.A crime requires the victim to be an active participant.


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