Write a research paper on how Piracy effects influences an issue of local, regional or global importance and its effect on US interest.

Write a research paper on how Piracy effects influences an issue of local, regional or global importance and its effect on US interest.

Critical Reasoning

1. Description of Instructional Event: In this lesson, we will discuss critical reasoning, the critical thinking
process, and critical thinking concepts, which include the Paul Model and Socratic questioning. Through
practical exercises, you will gain insight on different ways to face problems that focus on processes that
lead to obtaining valid answers and sound solutions.

2. Training Objectives.
a. Terminal Learning Objective
ACTION: Apply Critical Reasoning and the Critical Thinking Process to the
Intelligence Analysis Process.

CONDITION: Given Student Handouts, and Notes.

STANDARD: Apply Critical Reasoning and the Critical Thinking Process to the
Intelligence Analysis Process and achieve at least a Satisfactory on the
Critical Reasoning Paper In Accordance With the evaluation sheet.

Apply intellectual standards and the elements of reasoning, assess the ability of a
Culture (not an ethnic group or religion) within the Combined Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa AOR to influence an issue of local, regional, or global importance and it’s affect on U.S. interest. As well achieve at least a Satisfactory on the Critical Reasoning Paper IAW the evaluation sheet.

The Combined Joint Task Force Horn-Horn of Africa AOR includes the following countries: Yemen, Djibouti, Sudan, Ethiopia, Eriteria, Somolia, and Kenya.

Why is a thesis statement required?
A thesis statement is a road map for the paper; in other words, it tells the reader what to expect from the
rest of the paper. It is usually a single sentence somewhere in your first paragraph that presents your
argument to the reader. The rest of the paper, the body of the essay, gathers and organizes evidence
that will persuade the reader of the logic of your interpretation.

Why is a bibliography required?
The bibliography has three distinct purposes: First, it helps the reader understand what you are writing
about. Second, it assists those who want to reproduce or research your results and find the information
you used as a basis for your work. Finally, the bibliography represents the quality of your work by
identifying the amount of research you conducted to support your thesis, main points, analysis, and

Why is source citing required?
A primary purpose of a citation is intellectual honesty; to attribute to other authors the ideas they have
previously expressed, rather than give the appearance to the work’s readers that the work’s authors
originally wrote those ideas.

Source citing and bibliography guidelines
Your citations and reference page(s) should be formatted IAW APA formatting and style guidelines. The
following information is provided as a guide. For additional information on in-text citations or proper
reference page formatting, go to http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/. Additionally, there are many free
internet sites that offer citation-formatting assistance for a reference page such as:

APA Citation Basics
When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author’s
last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, E.g., (Jones, 1998), and a
complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.
If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making
reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year
of publication in your in-text reference.

In-Text Citation Capitalization, Quotes, and Italics/Underlining
• Always capitalize proper nouns, including author names and initials: D. Jones.
• If you refer to the title of a source within your paper, capitalize all words that are four letters long
or greater within the title of a source: Permanence and Change. Exceptions apply to short words
that are verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs: Writing New Media, There Is Nothing
Left to Lose.
(Note: in your References list, only the first word of a title will be capitalized: Writing new media.)
• When capitalizing titles, capitalize both words in a hyphenated compound word: Natural-Born
• Capitalize the first word after a dash or colon: “Defining Film Rhetoric: The Case of Hitchcock’s
• Italicize or underline the titles of longer works such as books, edited collections, movies,
television series, documentaries, or albums: The Closing of the American Mind; The Wizard of
Oz; Friends.
• Put quotation marks around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles, articles from edited
collections, television series episodes, and song titles: “Multimedia Narration: Constructing
Possible Worlds”; “The One Where Chandler Can’t Cry.”

Short Quotations
If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and the
page number for the reference (preceded by “p.”). Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that
includes the author’s last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.
According to Jones (1998), “Students often had difficulty using APA
style, especially when it was their first time” (p. 199). Jones (1998)
found “students often had difficulty using APA style” (p. 199); what
implications does this have for teachers?
If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author’s last name, the year of publication, and the
page number in parentheses after the quotation.
She stated, “Students often had difficulty using APA style,” but she
did not offer an explanation as to why (Jones, 1998, p. 199).
Long Quotations
Place direct quotations longer than 40 words in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit
quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented five spaces from the left margin. Type the
entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the
quotation five spaces from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical
citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.
Jones’s (1998) study found the following:
Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was
their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to
the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask
their teacher for help. (p. 199)

Summary or Paraphrase
If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and
year of publication in your in-text reference, but APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page
number (although it is not required.)
According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for
first-time learners.
APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners
(Jones, 1998, p. 199).

Reference: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/02/
Reference List: Basic Rules

Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper. It provides the information necessary for a
reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper. Each source you cite in the
paper must appear in your reference list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your
Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay; label this page
References centered at the top of the page (bold References, but do not underline or use quotation
marks). All text should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay.
Basic Rules
• All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the
left margin. This is called hanging indentation.
• Authors’ names are inverted (last name first); give the last name and initials for all authors of a
particular work unless the work has more than six authors. If the work has more than six authors, list
the first six authors and then use et al. after the sixth author’s name to indicate the rest of the authors.
• Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work.
• If you have more than one article by the same author, single-author references or multiple-author
references with the exact same authors in the exact same order are listed in order by the year of
publication, starting with the earliest.
• When referring to any work that is NOT a journal, such as a book, article, or Web page, capitalize only
the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title,
and proper nouns. Do not capitalize the first letter of the second word in a hyphenated compound
• Capitalize all major words in journal titles.
• Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals.
• Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or
essays in edited collections.

Reference: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/05/
Reference List: Electronic Sources
Article From an Online Periodical

Note: In 2007, the APA released several additions/modifications for documentation of electronic sources
in the APA Style Guide to Electronic References. These changes are reflected in the entries below.
Please note that there are no spaces used with brackets in APA.
Online articles follow the same guidelines for printed articles. Include all information the online host
makes available, including an issue number in parentheses.
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of
Online Periodical, volume number(issue number if available). Retrieved from
Bernstein, M. (2002). 10 tips on writing the living Web. A List Apart: For People
Who Make Websites, 149. Retrieved from

Online Scholarly Journal Article
Since online materials can potentially change URL’s, APA recommends providing a Digital Object
Identifier (DOI), when it is available, as opposed to the URL. DOI’s are an attempt to provide stable, longlasting
links for online articles. They are unique to their documents and consist of a long alphanumeric
code. Many-but not all-publishers will provide an article’s DOI on the first page of the document.
Note that some online bibliographies provide an article’s DOI but may “hide” the code under a button
which may read “Article” or may be an abbreviation of a vendors name like “CrossRef” or “PubMed.” This
button will usually lead the user to the full article which will include the DOI. Find DOI’s from print
publications or ones that go to dead links with CrossRef.org’s “DOI Resolver,” which is displayed in a
central location on their home page.

Article From an Online Periodical with DOI Assigned
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of
Journal, volume number. doi:0000000/000000000000
Brownlie, D. Toward effective poster presentations: An annotated bibliography.
European Journal of Marketing, 41(11/12), 1245-1283.

Article From an Online Periodical with no DOI Assigned
Online scholarly journal articles without a DOI require a URL.
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of
Journal, volume number. Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Kenneth, I. A. (2000). A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights. Journal
of Buddhist Ethics, 8. Retrieved from http://www.cac.psu.edu/jbe/twocont.html
If the article appears as a printed version as well, the URL is not required. Use “Electronic version” in
brackets after the article’s title.
Whitmeyer, J.M. (2000). Power through appointment [Electronic version]. Social
Science Research, 29, 535-555.

Article From a Database
When referencing material obtained from an online database (such as a database in the library), provide
appropriate print citation information (formatted just like a “normal” print citation would be for that type of
work). This will allow people to retrieve the print version if they do not have access to the database from
which you retrieved the article. You can also include the item number or accession number in
parentheses at the end, but the APA manual says that this is not required. For articles that are easily
located, do not provide database information. If the article is difficult to locate, then you can provide
database information. Only use retrieval dates if the source could change, such as Wikis. For more about
citing articles retrieved from electronic databases, see pages 187-192 of the Publication Manual.
Smyth, A. M., Parker, A. L., & Pease, D. L. (2002). A study of enjoyment of peas.
Journal of Abnormal Eating, 8(3).
If you only cite an abstract but the full text of the article is also available, cite the online abstract as other
online citations, adding “[Abstract]” after the article or source name.
Paterson, P. (2008). How well do young offenders with Asperger Syndrome cope in
custody?: Two prison case studies [Abstract]. British Journal of Learning
Disabilities, 36(1), 54-58.
Bossong, G. Ergativity in Basque. Linguistics, 22(3), 341-392.
Newspaper Article
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved
from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/
Parker-Pope, T. (2008, May 6). Psychiatry handbook linked to drug industry. The
New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com

Electronic Books
Electronic books may include books found on personal websites, databases, or even in audio form. Use
the following format if the book you are using is only provided in a digital format or is difficult to find in
print. If the work is not directly available online or must be purchased, use “Available from,” rather than
“Retrieved from,” and point readers to where they can find it.
De Huff, E.W. Taytay’s tales: Traditional Pueblo Indian tales. Retrieved from
Davis, J. Familiar birdsongs of the Northwest. Available from

Chapter/Section of a Web document or Online Book Chapter
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. In Title
of book or larger document (chapter or section number). Retrieved from
Engelshcall, R. S. (1997). Module mod_rewrite: URL Rewriting Engine. In Apache
HTTP Server Version 1.3 Documentation (Apache modules.) Retrieved from
Peckinpaugh, J. (2003). Change in the Nineties. In J.S. Bough and G.B. DuBois
(Eds.), A century of growth in America. Retrieved from GoldStar database.
NOTE: Use a chapter or section identifier and provide a URL that links directly to the chapter section, not
the home page of the Web site.
Online Book Reviews
Cite the information as you normally would for the work you are quoting. (The first example below is from
a newspaper article; the second is from a scholarly journal.) In brackets, write “Review of the book” and
give the title of the reviewed work. Provide the web address after the words “Retrieved from,” if the review
is freely available to anyone. If the review comes from a subscription service or database, write “Available
from” and provide the information where the review can be purchased.
Zacharek, S. (2008, April 27). Natural women [Review of the book Girls like us ].
The New York Times. Retrieved from

Castle, G. (2007). New millennial Joyce [Review of the books Twenty-first Joyce,
Joyce’s critics: Transitions in reading and culture, and Joyce’s messianism:
Dante, negative existence, and the messianic self]. Modern Fiction Studies,
50(1), 163-173. Available from Project MUSE Web site:
Dissertation/Thesis from a Database
Biswas, S. (2008). Dopamine D3 receptor: A neuroprotective treatment target in
Parkinson’s disease. Retrieved from ProQuest Digital Dissertations. (AAT
Online Encyclopedias and Dictionaries
Often encyclopedias and dictionaries do not provide bylines (authors’ names). When no byline is present,
move the entry name to the front of the citation. Provide publication dates if present or specify (n.d.) if no
date is present in the entry. When listing the URL, give only the home or index root as opposed to the
URL for the entry.
Feminism. (n.d.) In Encyclopædia Britannica online. Retrieved from http://
Online Bibliographies and Annotated Bibliographies
Jürgens, R. (2005). HIV/AIDS and HCV in Prisons: A Select Annotated Bibliography.
Retrieved from http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ahc-asc/alt_formats/hpb-dgps/
Data Sets
Point readers to raw data by providing a Web address (use “Retrieved from”) or a general place that
houses data sets on the site (use “Available from”).

United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. Indiana income limits
[Data file]. Retrieved from

Graphic Data (e.g. Interactive Maps and Other Graphic Representations of Data)
Give the name of the researching organization followed by the date. In brackets, provide a brief
explanation of what type of data is there and in what form it appears. Finally, provide the project name
and retrieval information.
Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment. (2007). [Graph illustration the SORCE
Spectral Plot May 8, 2008]. Solar Spectral Data Access from the SIM,
SOLSTICE, and XPS Instruments. Retrieved from http://lasp.colorado.edu/cgibin/
ion-p?page=input_data_for_ spectra.ion

Qualitative Data and Online Interviews
If an interview is not retrievable in audio or print form, cite the interview only in the text (not in the
reference list) and provide the month, day, and year in the text. If an audio file or transcript is available
online, use the following model, specifying the medium in brackets (e.g. [Interview transcript, Interview
audio file]):
Butler, C. (Interviewer) & Stevenson, R. (Interviewee). (1999). Oral History 2
[Interview transcript]. Retrieved from Johnson Space Center Oral Histories
Project Web site: http:// www11.jsc.nasa.gov/history/oral_histories/oral_

Online Lecture Notes and Presentation Slides
When citing online lecture notes, be sure to provide the file format in brackets after the lecture title (e.g.
PowerPoint slides, Word document).
Hallam, A. Duality in consumer theory [PDF document]. Retrieved from Lecture
Notes Online Web site: http://www.econ.iastate.edu/classes/econ501/Hallam/
Roberts, K. F. (1998). Federal regulations of chemicals in the environment
[PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from

Nonperiodical Web Document, Web Page, or Report
List as much of the following information as possible (you sometimes have to hunt around to find the
information; don’t be lazy. If there is a page like http://www.somesite.com/somepage.htm, and
somepage.htm doesn’t have the information you’re looking for, move up the URL to
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of document.
Retrieved from http://Web address
NOTE: When an Internet document is more than one Web page, provide a URL that links to the home
page or entry page for the document. Also, if there isn’t a date available for the document use (n.d.) for no

Computer Software/Downloaded Software
Do not cite standard office software (e.g. Word, Excel) or programming languages. Provide references
only for specialized software.
Ludwig, T. (2002). PsychInquiry [computer software]. New York: Worth.
Software that is downloaded from a Web site should provide the software’s version and year when
Hayes, B., Tesar, B., & Zuraw, K. (2003). OTSoft: Optimality Theory Software
(Version 2.1) [Software]. Available from
E-mails are not included in the list of references, though you parenthetically cite them in your main text:
(E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).
Online Forum or Discussion Board Posting
Include the title of the message, and the URL of the newsgroup or discussion board. Please note that
titles for items in online communities (e.g. blogs, newsgroups, forums) are not italicized. If the author’s
name is not available, provide the screen name. Place identifiers like post or message numbers, if
available, in brackets. If available, provide the URL where the message is archived (e.g. “Message posted
to…, archived at…”).
Frook, B. D. (1999, July 23). New inventions in the cyberworld of toylandia [Msg
25]. Message posted to http://groups.earthlink.com/forum/messages/00025.html

Blog (Weblog) and Video Blog Post
Include the title of the message and the URL. Please note that titles for items in online communities (e.g.
blogs, newsgroups, forums) are not italicized. If the author’s name is not available, provide the screen
Dean, J. (2008, May 7). When the self emerges: Is that me in the mirror? Message
posted to http://www.spring.org.uk/
the1sttransport. (2004, September 26). Psychology Video Blog #3 [Video File].
Video posted to http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lqM90eQi5-M

Please note that the APA Style Guide to Electronic References warns writers that wikis (like Wikipedia, for
example) are collaborative projects which cannot guarantee the verifiability or expertise of their entries.
OLPC Peru/Arahuay. (n.d.). Retrieved from the OLPC Wiki: http://wiki.laptop.
Audio Podcast
For all podcasts, provide as much information as possible; not all of the following information will be
available. Possible addition identifiers may include Producer, Director, etc.
Bell, T. & Phillips, T. 2008, May 6). A solar flare. Science @ NASA Podcast.
Podcast retrieved from http://science.nasa.gov/podcast.htm

Video Podcasts
For all podcasts, provide as much information as possible; not all of the following information will be
available. Possible addition identifiers may include Producer, Director, etc.
Scott, D. (Producer). (2007, January 5). The community college classroom [Episode
7]. Adventures in Education. Podcast retrieved from

Reference: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/

Evaluation Sheet


Purpose for writing was clearly stated and specific.
Thesis statement was clear and specific.
Clear and specific main points. Main points were relevant to the thesis statement.

Body: Development of Content
Major points fully supported thesis.
Clearly and fairly discussed multiple points of view.
Addressed implications or consequences of the thesis.
Sequencing of major/minor points effectively supported writer’s purpose.
Clear reasoning showed how evidence supports main points/thesis.
Identified and answered anticipated thoughts, concepts, problems, solutions, biases and prejudices.
Essay was free of fallacies.
Information clearly supported by facts and data.
Transitions between points were effectively connected to major/minor points.

Conclusion was clear and reinforced thesis and major points.
Conclusion was concise and fully justified by the evidence and the reasoning.

Clear, concise sentences.
Clear, concise paragraphs that were properly formatted and included topic sentecences.
Primarily active voice.
Only one or two errors in grammar, punctuation, or spelling.
Paper presents a professional appearance.

Research Ability:
Appropriately used endnotes and source citing within paper.
Submitted bibliography accurately identified each source, author, and date of information.
Superior research conducted and references listed to fully support facts, main ideas, and assumptions.
All references and sources were fully verifiable and accurate.


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